Legend and mythology gave us Atlantis and Vineta. In reality we have these sites:
- Phasis, Georgia. This city could be the legendary
destination of Jason and the Argonauts in their quest for the Golden Fleece. Structures discovered at
the Black Sea coast in 1999.
- Helike, Greek city destroyed by earthquake
and sunk in 373 BC. Located in 2000, on land but 3 m down in sediment and clay, which seems to have
been under water for some time.
Large Hellenistic city, founded shortly after the death of Alexander, then a Roman garrison city for
5000 soldiers, finally deserted after a Persian attack in 252 AD. Being located at the shore of
Euphrates River, the lower parts were submerged by a Turkish dam project in 2000.
Emergency-investigated by French archaeologists during the five years before it was submerged. The
greatest find was a 14-room Roman villa with painted murals and floor mosaics. The beautiful mosaic
masterpieces, e.g. with Daedalos and Pasiphaes, were recovered for the local museum. Among other, the
walls, the streets, and the sophisticated sewer system was investigated. The area may also have been
the location of the Biblical Garden of Eden, but that's a different story.
- Sunken city in Yunnan lake.
News agency Xinhua reports on China's first-ever underwater archaeological expedition. The site,
possibly Han Dynasty, is deep in Fuxian Lake in Southwest China's Yunnan Province.
& Menouthis, ancient cities near Alexandria,
recently located on 8 m depth. Heraklion was a maritime port and Menouthis
was a sacred city devoted to Isis & Serapis. These cities were submerged
in the 8tc century AD as a result of earthquakes or a Nile flood. Discovered
and investigated by the team of Franck Goddio. Ref New York Times,
26 December 2000, Archaeology,
June 2000, Der Spiegel 24/2000.
- Rungholt. German city on the North Sea coast. Submerged by a
flood in 1362. For centuries the city was thought to be mere mythological,
until evidence and location was rediscovered in the 20th century.
- Santa Fe la Vieja, submerged city in Argentina. Founded
in 1573, abandoned in 1660.
- Port Royal,
Jamaica. This pirate city had become one of the wealthiest cities in the
world, with multi-storey brick houses. Parts of the city sank after earthquake in 1692.
Remains can easily be viewed by free diving. Investigated by Robert F. Marx and others,
presently by Donny L Hamilton. Described in National Geographic Feb 1960 and INJA
Legendary sunken cities
This mythological city was described by Plato. Taking the story literally makes little sense, meaning
a huge island in the Atlantic having disappeared without trace. Perhaps the legend was inspired by
the volcanic destruction of the Minoan island
around 1600 BC.
- Vineta. This mythological sunken city
was described by Adam of Bremen in 1075 AD, and in 1170 AD reported destroyed by the Danes. According
to Dr. Klaus Goldmann, Berliner Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte, the remains may be under the
seabottom off the North-German city Barth. So far there is no evidence.
Similar sites are listed under Submerged structures.
Possible future submerged cities are in Turkey, threatened by planned dams along the Euphrates and
Tigris rivers. Zeugma is already flooded and Hasankeyf is planned for. Will these sites be investigated
before flooded? The ancient city Assur
in Iraq is also endangered.
Atlantis interpretation by Axel Nelson.
Page by Per Åkesson, rev