Bismillahi Al-Rahmani Al-Rahim
Muqim vs. Mustautin
When you say "muqimeen", if someone
reaches a destination and plans to stay there for more than 4 days,
but it seems to be a city where the sha'air of islam are not
present, does one have to make adhan, or is he considered a
traveller in this instant? Also, in this sense, who is considered
muqim and who isn't? Are refugees considered muqimeen? What is the
legal definition of "muqim"?
Al-salamu `alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu
The Shari`a differentiates between travelers and residents, and
differentiates between two categories of residents. Roughly
Traveler [musafir] â€"
Someone on a journey who has gone more than 81 km from their
place of residency.
Resident [muqim] â€" Someone staying in a
place for more than four days, or staying in a place where he has
a spouse or household.
Permanent resident (â€œsettledâ€)
[mustautin] â€" Like (2) with the addition
that the person never plans to leave.
If someone becomes resident â€" even if only temporary
â€" in a place where the outward manifestations of Islam
are not being performed, the community obligation rests on his
Refugees are resident, even if they intent to return home at some
(Source: This is taken aurally from my sheikhs in the Shafi`i and
Hanbali madhhabs. Few Shafi`i books are explicit on this; this is
mentioned in Al-Sharqawi's well known hashiyah â€" in the
hashiyah or in the basic text. I have yet to see this explicitly
mentioned in Hanbali books, though there are things that point in
And Allah knows best.
Wa al-salamu `alaykum,