living islam _ Islamic tradition
Ibn `Arabi: Philosophy and Reason
When the knowers of God enter the universe of spiritual meanings
they are in the presence, Ibn `Arabi informs us, of a reality in which
what is hidden to the rational faculty, and therefore sometimes
deemed impossible by it, actually occurs and is witnessed. This
world is referred to in Ibn `Arabi studies as the intermediate objective
world of the divine creative imagination. As James Morris carefully
points out, Ibn `Arabi draws a decisive distinction "between each
individual's 'self-deluding imagination' and the ongoing Divine
'Imaging' underlying all creation".
see complete doc. in pdf.
http://www.ibn-arabi.com/MT 20Ch 202.pdf
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Sufi Shrines of Ayodhya
Vidya Bhushan Rawat
Sufism, or mystical Islam, has many different strands, some eclectic and
open, others conservative and orthodox. It seems that the sort of Sufism
that emerged and developed in Ayodhya was, by and large, of the former variety.
Many of the Sufis of Ayodhya were upholders of what is called, for want of
a better term, the wujudi position, developed as a systematic doctrine by
the great thirteenth century Spanish Sufi, Muhiyuddin Ibn Arabi. Ibn Arabi
believed that all of existence (wujud) was of one essence and had the same
source, God. God, he insisted, pervades all creation. He proclaimed the wahdat
al-wujud or the 'unity of all existence'. The wujudis, because of their understanding
of God and creation, were set apart from the majority of the ulama or Muslim
clerics attached to the ruling establishments of their times, and for this
were often persecuted. The tenth century Sufi master Mansur al-Hallaj was
probably one of the greatest wujudis of all times. His ecstatic utterance,
an al haq or 'I am the Truth', referring to the total absorption of the self
in God, earned him the wrath of the establishment ulama, who, wrongly accusing
him of claiming divinity for himself, promptly had him sent to the gallows.
In India the wujudi Sufis, many of them who had settled in the country from
Central Asia and Iran, exercised a major influence. Because of their breadth
of vision, their opposition to caste differences, and their simple message
of ethical monotheism, and above all, their own personal example and charismatic
appeal, they made large numbers of disciples, particularly among the low
castes groaning under the oppression of the Brahminical system. Scores of
low castes converted to Islam at their hands, while many more, still remaining
wedded to their ancestral faiths, came to develop a close link with the Sufis,
seeing them as powerful beings capable of interceding with God to have their
Response to a Misleading Article on Islam and Sufism
[But we] interpret "Wahdat al-Wujud" to mean
that nothing exists of itself, independent of everything else, except Allah.
Such an understanding is certainly within Islam, since everything which
*isn't* Allah depends upon Allah for its existence.
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